Vitiligo is described as 'SHVITRA' or "Shveta Kusth" or “Kilasa” in Ayurveda, while classifying the eighteen types of kusth. It occurs due to imbalance of all the three doshas namely Vata, Pitta and Kapha. The imbalanced doshas vitiates Rakta, Mamsa and Medhas Dhatus. Thus it is termed TRIDOSAJ disease in Ayurveda. The three doshas get vitiated and cause vitiligo due to the following reasons:
• Poor hygiene
• Intake of opposite food combination (virudh aahar sevan)
• Regular mental pressure or stress
These lead to formation and accumulation of toxins in our body and malfunctioning of body’s immunity. Both these factors lead to death of melanocytes and appearance of white patches on the various parts of body. That is why Ayurvedic treatment of white patches is based on improvement of immunity and rectification of the problem from root.
It is a tridoshaj disease but is mainly considered as pitta dosha predominant disorder. Pitta is an Ayurvedic humor that symbolizes fire and is manifested in the skin, along with other organs. Out of the five types of pitta, Bhrajak Pitta is responsible for skin color. Imbalance of Bhrajak Pitta leads to the formation of ama, which consequently impairs deeper body tissues such as rasa dhatu (nutrient plasma), rakta (blood), mamsa (muscles) and lasika (lymph). This ultimately causes depigmentation of the skin or Shvitra.
The lesions of vitiligo are painless and remain sensory unlike Leprosy. It is a non-infectious non exudative skin disorder that involves rakta, mamsa and medo dhatu. This disease spreads fast and becomes incurable very quickly.